Weather in Cusco
Cusco is located in the central and south-eastern part of Peru. It occupies a large part of the Vilcanota orographic knot. Its diversity and abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystems are mainly associated with the Andes Mountains.
In political-administrative terms, the department of Cusco is conformed by 13 provinces: Acomayo, Anta, Calca, Canas, Canchis, Cusco, Chumbivilcas, Espinar, La Convención, Paruro, Paucartambo, Quispicanchi and Urubamba. According to the 2007 National Census, the population is 1’171,403 inhabitants, of which 55% live in the urban sector and 45% in the rural sector. The territory has an area of 71986.5 Km2 and the population density is 16.3 hab/Km2 (INEI – CPV2007).
Cusco borders on the north with the jungles of Junín and Ucayali; on the west with the jungle of Ayacucho and the mountain range of Apurímac; on the south with the highlands of Arequipa and Puno; and on the east with the great Amazon plain of Madre de Dios.
The city of Cusco, formed by the districts of Wanchaq, Cusco, San Jerónimo, San Sebastián and Santiago, is at an altitude of 3399 meters above sea level. Its geographical location is as follows: Latitude south: 13°30’45”, longitude west: 71°58’33” (INEI – Compendio estadístico departamental 1995 – 1996)
The territories of Cusco are under the macro-climatic influence of large masses of air from the southeastern jungle, the Altiplano, and even the distant region of Patagonia. The winds of the southern jungle involve immense masses of air loaded with humidity, which are driven by the trade winds from the east.
The winds coming from the Peruvian-Bolivian Altiplano are rather cold and dry, as are those coming from Patagonia. These enter through the south-eastern zone.
On the other hand, the local winds generated in the valleys and plains of Cusco have the function of distributing heat and humidity throughout the day.
In general, two climatic seasons are distinguished: the rainy season, from November to March and the dry season, from April to October.
Types of weather in Cusco
Warm climates (humid and dry)
They correspond to the lowland jungle areas, both to the north, in the lower Urubamba, and to the east of the region, at the entrance to the valleys of Pillcopata and Araza.
- – Rainfall: More than 1000 mm per year
- – Temperatures: Maximum: Around 30°C
- – Medium: Between 23° and 25°C
- – Minimum: around 20°C
The hot and dry climates, on the other hand, occur in the low yungas that appear, in the form of canyons, in the Apurímac river basin, in the center and southwest of the region.
- – Rainfall: Less than 500 mm per year
- – Temperatures: Maximum: Up to 32°C
- – Medium: Between 17° and 18°C
- – Minimum: Up to 4.4°C
Temperate (wet and dry)
Climates of the inter-Andean valleys that dominate the central zone of the Cusco territory, where the difference in humidity is marked by the location on the slope. That is to say, the proximity to the east implies more humidity, while the proximity to the west implies greater dryness. The zones of temperate climate are of vital importance for the settlement of the populations.
- – Temperatures: Maximum: Up to 29°.
- – Medium: Between 11° and 16°.
- – Minimum: Between 7° and -4°.
Cold (wet and dry)
They occur mainly in the highlands of the valleys, in the punas and in the regions surrounding the glaciers; that is, in areas above 3800 meters above sea level.
- – Temperatures: Maximum: Up to 10°.
- – Medium: Varies according to altitude
- – Minimum: Under 0°.